“Eyesight is said to be the most important sense among all human senses in a way that approximately 80 percent of impressions are received by our sight. It helps us to distinguish light from darkness, protects us from danger, and ensures our participation in daily communication, activities, sports, work, as well as education”.1
For most of us, it can be hard to imagine how visually impaired people are living in a society where most architecture and facilities are constructed for sighted individuals.2 Similarly, individuals with vision may have difficult to consider that how to blind women professionals have managed to work on the workplace that is well-equipped with visual working materials.3
However, in most regions of the globe, women tend to be subordinated to men.
Therefore, there is not a criterion delineation of disability. Although, the World Health Organization (WHO) has acquired an International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps: "Impairment's refer[s] to a defective limb, organ or mechanism of the body, 'disability' as the resulting lack of function, and 'handicap' denotes the limitations on daily life which ensue from disability".7 This definition is generally accepted globally and is credibly turning down by disability activists as the definition imposed by professional (non-disabled) people. They dispute that disability is the outcome of disabling of social, environmental and attitudinal barriers.8
Disability may occur during a lifetime
Furthermore, the Government of Pakistan has also ratified the International Labour Organization Convention on Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons, 1983. Similarly, in 2011 Pakistan also ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).14 According to estimates by the World Bank and the World Health Organization, at least 10% of the total population of Pakistan is disabled or persons with disabilities (PWDs).15 Of the 18 million people with disabilities, 5 million live in urban areas
In Pakistan, humiliation is aggravated by the fact that the only representation of a disabled person is the reflection of a poor man begging on the street.19 And whether this mortification is exceeded, there will not be barriers to work for people with visual, hearing or physical impairments: getting to work (quality of roads and transportation networks), moving around the workplace (ramp, accessible restrooms and so on) and work (with technology).20 Moreover, communication is challenging for people suffering from speech and hearing impairments because sign language is not generally used. For the mentally disabled, limited rehabilitation and educational services consistent with their needs have reduced their employment opportunities.21 Therefore, the other problem is that the economy like Pakistan is generally subsistence to agriculture, and many job opportunities are still in the primary industries. For example, productive workers in the rural population are difficult for anyone with a disability.22 The country also has a huge number of workers, which indicates that employers hardly choose candidates that need to spend resources making them suitable for the work.23
Although there is a huge difference in the number of persons with disabilities between the World Report and the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, in both instances
Another study elaborates that people with disabilities
Certain department heads have been reluctant to accept visually impaired or disabled women in the workplace. They are deemed to be an incumbe
Every single people discuss the blind and visually impairment, certain stereotypes appear in their minds, including, a guide dog, being unable to read, an association with darkness, a white cane, not being able to recognize people’s faces and many more, all of which point to a sense of helplessness. Most of them have difficulty accepting the fact that they have become blind and visually impaired, and they still expect the community will consider them as ‘normal’ people. Though, people in this condition usually don't realize that this attitude may lead them to a greater detriment in managing daily life after they become blind and visually impaired. Here, psychotherapy should be emphasized to eradicate this behavior and help reduce the destructive effects of visual deterioration on emotive health.
The research has been done to view the social and economic problems faced by blind and visually impaired women. The study seeks to know the social attitudes and behavior of people towards blind women. This study is helpful to carry on further analyses of the challenges of professional women with blindness and visual impairment in terms of mobility. It also shows how blind women manage their income within the household. It also discovers why blind women are not employed according to their abilities. It makes the people aware of this issue of our Pakistani society. This research will determine the difficulties and problems faced by blind and visually impaired women in the workplace. This study may be quietly different and opposite from the other researchers. The study also fortified and motivate
- To find out the socio-economic conditions of blind and visually impaired professional women.
- To find out the social attitudes and perceptions towards blind and visually impaired professional women.
- To find out the effects of discrimination towards professional women with blindness and visual
- To find out the level of harassment faced by blind and visually impaired professional women at
- To find out why blind and visual impaired women are not employed according to their abilities.
- To find out the challenges of professional women with blindness and visual impairment in terms of mobility in Pakistan.
- To find out the problems faced in their domestic life.
- To find out how the status of professional women can be improved according to their own views.
- To find out how they manage their income within household and upon themselves.
- To examine and analyse the role of blind and visually impaired professional women in their family with special reference to decision-making power.
The Scope of the Research
This thesis emphases the lives of the visually impaired and blind women in Karachi, who are restricted in employment and income choices and therefore contribute to low-paying jobs. Somewhat than considering only their everyday lives and daily practices as blind and visually impaired, they have also drawn further attention to the impact of the social, cultural, economic and political factors of contemporary Pakistani society. In addition to the sociocultural description of disability in the Pakistani context, social constructivists and socio-economic methodologies to disability are used as a theoretical framework to explain the overall life experience of working women who are blind. It deals with the life experiences of blind working women and the social, cultural, economic, and political issues related to disability in contemporaneous Pakistani society, rather than identifying a series of incidents or behaviors about them in isolation.
It also deals with society's interpretation of infirmity, rather than considering disability as an incompetent, unsuccessful, or problem specific to a particular individual. Finally, it involves the role of Government, policy intercessions and the main agents in improving the life of visually impaired and blind working women, specifically those whose main source of income is derived from low earnings work, rather than assessing the policy and legal frameworks as such. Besides, these commendations can be used as part of a new reintegration strategy in tackling the psychosomatic health and well-being issues of women with disabilities, particularly those with a visual impairment and blind, by reassuring them to make more frequent use of technologies.
Justification of the Study
This study has been done to view the social and economic problems faced by blind and visually impaired professional women living in Karachi. This study will highlight the problems that are faced by professional women with blindness and visual impairment and their solutions related to their work. These women also face many difficulties and issues in domestic life due to their disability. The discernment and discrimination they face in promotion, the unenthusiastic attitude of a boss or employer towards their work performance, having less believed in the skills and capabilities of disabled women. All these issues and differences need to tackle out to give these women a suitable place they deserve in society. This study will also waken the Government to the fact that state-level support and benefaction is required to resolve issues. In countries like Pakistan women and mostly disabled women are susceptible sections who generally are given no importance in the overall development. Their involvement in various sectors can be seen as remarkable but it finds no place when the matter of identification comes into the discussion at any level
The Basic Research Paradigm
A paradigm is a context comprising of basic suppositions, ways of thinking, and methods generally recognized by members of the scientific community.31 This is a set of morals, opinions
The socio-economic challenges of persons
The purpose of the study is to know about the problems faced by blind professional women in their domestic life and to observe the role of blind and visually impaired professional women in their family with special reference to decision-making power. In a report of USAID (by Sarah Phillips)
- People feel sympathy
for towards blind and visually impaired professional women but do not want to understand their capabilities.
- There are limited employment opportunities for blind and visually impaired women.
- Employers regard blind and visually impaired women as unproductive workers who are unable to adjust to the workplace.
- Women with blindness and visual impairment seeking employment face double discrimination of gender and disability.
- The legal framework in Pakistan is weak as far as protecting the rights of
the person with disabilities i s n concerned.
Variables are features that increase or reduce over
- Blind and visually impaired women
- Women with blindness and visual impairment
- Rights of person with disabilities
- Sympathy and capabilities
- Limited employment opportunities
- Unproductive workers
- Face double discrimination of gender and disability
- Legal framework in Pakistan
The Key Concepts
Women who generally earn salaries, remunerations or other income outside the home through usual work. Working women are women involved in manual or industrialized labor.39
Disability is a general term that covers impairment, activity constraints and participation restraints. Impairment is a problem of corporal function or structure; activity constraint is the difficulty encountered by individuals in performing chores or actions and participation limitation is a difficulty faced by persons in contributing in living conditions.40
Blindness can be impermanent or everlasting. It was the loss of useful sight. Damage to the eyes, optic nerve, or any part of the brain area can cause blindness.41 There are several reasons
From a capitalist perspective, unproductive workers are workers who expend more than reproduc
As the term implies, visual impairment includes vision problems that can interfere with a student's academic recital.45 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authoritatively defines the category as “visual impairment that can undesirably affect a child's educational performance even when corrected. The term embraces of partial vision and blindness”.46
The problem is unacceptable and challenging situations. A problem is defined as a difficulty that must be resolved
Harassment is a type of discernment. It includes any harmful physical or verbal behavior that affronts or insults you.49 Harassment is usually a behavior that continues over time. A serious one-time incident can also be considered harassment.50
The treatment of an individual or a specific group of people is different than the way people are usually handled. Discrimination refers that one or a group of people is treated more unfairly or inferior to others or a group of people.51